None Confusion

As the nation prepares for President Obama’s second term in office and the 113th United States Congress assembles, much attention has been drawn to the new religious milieu of Capitol Hill. Earlier this month the Pew Forum released the data on Faith on the Hill. While Protestants still dominate Congress, the Pew Forum noted that they lost seats held in the previous session, as did Jews. In contrast, Catholics gained 7 seats and Mormons stayed about the same. Here’s the interesting point made by PF:

“Protestants, Catholics, Jews and Mormons each make up a greater percentage of the members of Congress than of all U.S. adults.”

Not only are there more Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and Mormons in Congress compared to the U.S. public at large, but also there are significantly less of the religiously unaffiliated on Capitol Hill. Whereas 1 in 5 adult Americans identify as holding no religious affiliation, only 1 member of Congress–Representative Krysten Sinema, D-Arizona–identifies as unaffiliated. Since she is the only member of Congress to remain unaffiliated to a religious organization, many atheist organizations and individuals claim her as their own. Sinema, however, has distanced herself from these organizations, stating that she is and will remain religiously unaffiliated.

The continued statements by Sinema have garnered heat from many sides. Specifically, Chris Stedman took his shots at Sinema on the CNN Religion Blog in “My take: ‘Athiest isn’t a dirty word, congresswoman.” Stedman criticizes Sinema for her public statement clarifying her religious beliefs. When asked if she was a nontheist, Sinema’s campaign gave the following public statement: “(Rep. Sinema) believes the terms non-theist, atheist or non-believer are not befitting of her life’s work or personal character.” Disappointed in Sinema’s explanation and not her self-identification, Stedman admitted:

“But as a proud atheist and humanist, I’m disheartened that the only member of Congress who openly identifies as nonreligious has forcefully distanced herself from atheism in a way that puts down those of us who do not believe in God.”

Assuming Sinema’s statement to tacitly put down atheism as an acceptable affiliation, Stedman makes a conflation that I find interesting and, it seems, common. The category of “Nones,” the religious unaffiliated in America, is so large and diffuse that it is easy to confuse those 1 in 5 persons with atheism or “nonreligion.” But that is not the case with the survey question nor, it seems, with Sinema. The religiously unaffiliated as it is written in Pew Forum surveys can include theists and the “religious.” As Steven Ramey has pointed out at the Bulletin for Religious Studies, the category “None” includes people who pray and those who don’t as well as those who believe in a “higher power” and those who don’t. For Stedman to assume that Sinema is “nonreligious” misunderstands the variety of people who fall within the category of “unaffiliated.” It seems plausible in this case that Sinema considers herself to be a “none” who prefers to remain unaffiliated with a religious organization, but still considers herself “religious” in some sense. A category of self-identification that begs the question: What precisely is meant when someone claims they are “religious”?

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Much Ado About “Nones”

Today the Pew Forum released results from their latest survey of the American religious landscape. After almost ten years of making asides about the growth of this demographic in their annual reports, the Pew Forum announced: “Nones” on the Rise.”

Based on phone interviews conducted in June and July of this year, the Pew Forum finds that 1 in 5 adult Americans identify as having no religious affiliation [and, thus, the term “none”], a 5-percent increase in the past five years. A closer look at this demographic reveals that while 1 in 5 may identify as religiously “unaffiliated,” many hold what might be called “religious” beliefs, like believing in God (68%), or participating in “religious” activities, like praying everyday (21%). Interesting still, these “religious” characteristics do not lead “nones” to seek an affiliation. When asked, “Are you looking for a religion that would be right for you,” 88% answered “not looking.” Those in my Religion in U.S. History courses, who have tracked the Pew Forum before, may not be surprised to read that this demographic is noticeably larger when broken down by generation: 1 in 3 adults under thirty identified as having no religious affiliation. The changing religious landscape in America only provides further evidence that religion scholars need to stay on their toes and continue to re-consider the way in which they think about and research “religion.”

The full report can be found here and the US Religious Landscape Survey can be found here.

Press on the report can be found at NPR, PBS, USA Today, Huffington Post, and the Washington Post, to name a few. More to come.